Fossil Fauna and Flora

The stone history of the mountainous nature of Tajikistan is well-exposed and easily accessible to study. There are numerous deposits of fossil fauna and flora, tens of which are unique; however, none of these is protected by the state. Some of the easily accessible deposits of fossils are now under the threat of destruction due to human activity.

Identification of the logic of the origin, development and extinction of ancient biosystems allows to learn more about the present biodiversity, reasons for survival, vulnerability, fragility and instability, and to work out the best solutions on species conservation.

Precambrian (more than 570 m.y.) fossils are rare in Tajikistan; they are represented by the remnants of primitive algae and rare invertebrates.

The oldest precise age of fossils found in Tajikistan is Paleozoic (570-230 m.y. ago). The Paleozoic organic world of Tajikistan is rich in composition. The territory of Paleozoic Tajikistan was occupied by tropical sea. At the end of Paleozoic, the total area of the present Northern, Central, and, partly, Eastern Tajikistan was free of water. That was the age when spore-bearing and gymnosperm plants developed. All classes of cold-blooded vertebrates (agnathous, fish, amphibian, and reptiles) appeared in Paleozoic. The invertebrates of the Paleozoic were represented by conodonts, brachiopods, rugoses, and tabulates; the first half of Paleozoic - by trilobites, archaeocyathids, graptolites, tentaculites, nautiloids, and endoceratites; in the second half of Paleozoic, goniatites and foraminifers were common. Peaks of sea invertebrate biodiversity were in Late Cambrian, Middle Ordovician, Early Devonian, Early Carboniferous, and Early Permian. Paleozoic fossils are found in numerous deposits of Tien Shan and the Pamirs.

By the beginning of Mesozoic (230-67 m.y. ago), the northern, Northeastern, Central, and a part of Southern Tajikistan was occupied by land, with young mountains; the Southern Tajikistan was a sea bottom. In Mesozoic, gymnosperms and filices dominated here. In the second half of Cretaceous, higher angiosperms were dominating. Of vertebrates, reptiles were common. Warm-blooded animals - mammals and birds - also appeared in Mesozoic. Invertebrates of Tajikistan were widely represented by ammonoids, bivalves (oysters, rudists); in early Mesozoic - by conodonts, in late Mesozoic - by echinoids. Peaks of sea invertebrate biodiversity were reached in Late Triassic, Middle Jurassic, and Middle Cretaceous. The Mesozoic fossils of Tajikistan were defined from numerous deposits of Tien Shan and the Pamirs.

In the Cainozoic era (for 67 m.y. till now), including the present stage of evolution, the alpine epoch of folding and mountain-formation that shaped the present appearance of mountains manifested itself. This epoch still continues on the territory of in the country. In the late Early Cainozoic, the sea completely regressed from the territory of Tajikistan and a continental regime was established everywhere in the country. Cainozoic is the time when all present families and genera of animals and plants appeared. A specific feature of the Cainosoic era is domination of higher angiosperms. Higher placental mammals that were common on Earth as early as the beginning of the era, develop; they inhabited land and accommodated to life in water and on land.

The localities of Cainosoic fossils and archaeological monuments are in the Kuramin, Turkestan, Zeravshan, Hissar, Karategin, Peter the Great, Zaalay, and Darvaz ridges; in the Fergana, Maghian, and Tajik depressions; and in the Pamirs.

Mass extinction of higher plant groups, as a rule, does not coincide with that of animals, it occurred approximately half geological era earlier

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Protecting national heritage of Tajikistan!

Protecting national heritage of Tajikistan!

"Protecting national heritage of Tajikistan!" has been prepared in the framework of UNDP/GEF project "Conservation and sustainable use of Pamir Alay and Tien Shan ecosystems for snow leopard protection and sustainable community livelihoods" and is dedicated to the International Day of Snow Leopard, which is annualycelebrated on October 23.

The publication is intended for a wide range of readers and lovers of nature, and is intended to inform about the importance and value of conservation of the snow leopard ecosystems and its prey.

Biosafety and Environment: Introduction to Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Biosafety and Environment: Introduction to Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Full text in russian



The National Report on Ramsar Convention consists of four sections:

Section 1 provides the institutional information about the Administrative Authority and National Focal Points for the national implementation of the Convention.

Section 2 is a ‘free-text’ section in which the Party is invited to provide a summary of various aspects of national implementation progress and recommendations for the future.

Section 3 provides the 66 implementation indicator questions, grouped under each Convention implementation strategy in the Strategic Plan 2009-2015, and with an optional ‘free-text’ section under each indicator question in which the Contracting Party may, if it wishes, add further information on national implementation of that activity.

Section 4 is an optional annex to allow any Contracting Party that so wishes to provide additional information regarding any or all of its Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites).

Full text of the report.

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement on biosafety, as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by genetically modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.

The Biosafety Protocol makes clear that products from new technologies must be based on the precautionary principle and allow developing nations to balance public health against economic benefits. It will for example let countries ban imports of a genetically modified organisms if they feel there is not enough scientific evidence that the product is safe and requires exporters to label shipments containing genetically altered commodities such as corn or cotton.

The required number of 50 instruments of ratification/accession/approval/acceptance by countries was reached in May 2003. In accordance with the provisions of its Article 37, the Protocol entered into force on 11 September 2003. As of March 2015, the Protocol has 170 parties, which includes 167 United Nations member states, Niue, the State of Palestine, and the European Union.

Full text in english is available here