Significant abundance of species diversity of flora and fauna, valuable genetic resources, endemic and epibiotic species of flora and fauna have developed in extremely diverse environmental conditions of Tajikistan. This great diversity are nowadays being preserved in natural ecosystems, and, partly, in agricultural ecosystems. Rich biodiversity is composed of around 23 thousands of flora and fauna species, 1900 of which are endemic. The main sources of river formation which supply water into the basin of Aral Sea are glaciers and perennial snow cover.Country’s water sources are used for irrigation of cotton, industrial and domestic needs.
It also accounts for 95% of the total electrical energy production. Tajikistan’s biodiversity has great importance on the global, regional and national levels. From the amount of globally valuable there are 11 plant species which are important for selective breeding: Aspicilia oxneriana, Hordeum bulbosum, Fritillaria regelii, Tulipa subquinquefolia, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, Juglans regia, Pistasio verae and others. Two species have been introduced in the Red Book IUCN-2006: Darvaz dogwood Swida darvasica and apple-tree Malus sieversii. Among animals following species present global imrportance: markhor Capra falconeri, snow leopard Uncia uncia and urial (red sheep) Ovis vignei. The main protected species among plant communities of various landscapes are endemics, which present global importance. Among these are 30 plant species (Vavilov almonds, walnuts, pistachios, Darvazian plums, Kayon pears, Suvorov onion, Sambul Roots, bulbous barleys, Rozenbakh onions, and others). There are in total number 105 species of endemics. Valuable plant communities are wooded, meadow, tugay, piny and semi-savannah flora where could be found significant number of rare endemic and eibiotic species.